Tamil Nadu, one of the hottest tourist destination of India. This state, located in southern peninsula of of our country has a rich history.
Hemmed by azure water of Bay of Bengal and Indian Ocean, Tamil Nadu is known as ‘the country of Tamil’. Since 1500 B.C, Tamil Nadu has been the home of Tamil civilization which is evident from numerous archaeological sites that are dotted in the entire state. The most important archaeological site being Adichanallur, which is located near Tirunelveli town. Even the language, Tamil is also very old and traces back its history to 2, 500 years. Since that era, this classical language of India has been used in inscriptions and literature.
History of Tamil Nadu can be classified into various eras such as prehistoric era, eras of empires, and British era.
Pre-historic era – Pre historic era of Tamil Nadu can be classified into Old Stone Age, New Stone Age, Metal Age and Megalithic age.Archaeological evidences found in Adichanallur, located just 24 km from Tirunelveli. 169 clay urns containing human skulls, skeletons and bones, plus husks and grains of rice, charred rice and Neolithic Celts, are found here which confirms the Neolithic period( 3800 years ago). Apart from this, a group of Indian geologists are connecting the history of Tamil Nadu with Jurassic era. They have found hundreds of fossilized dinosaur eggs, perhaps of 65 million years old, underneath a stream in a small village in Ariyalur district.
Age of Empires (600 -1300 B.C)
Ancient History (1st to 9th century) – After pre-historic era, now its turn for ancient period. The history of this period mainly showcases the rise and fall of many empires. Some of these kings have extended their empires to other parts of India as well as overseas. In the first few centuries of this period, there was very little trace of existence of Chola dynasty, who were very active during the Sangam period. But, rivalry between Pallavas and Pandyas has helped the Cholas to regain their strength. They have ruled the region like Thanjavur and Tiruchirapalli districts in between 1st and 4th centuries C.E.
During the later half of 4th century, Pallavas has ruled the south for nearly 400 years. They have ruled a large portion of the region from Kanchipuram which served as their capital. In the 6th century they defeated the Cholas and ruled as far as Sri Lanka. In the 9th century, the last Pallava king was defeated by Aditya Chola.